STUDENTS’ KNOWLEDGE AND INFORMATION SOURCE ON SEXUAL TRANSMITTED INFECTION (STIS ) IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL:

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STUDENTS’ KNOWLEDGE AND INFORMATION SOURCE ON SEXUAL TRANSMITTED INFECTION (STI) IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL:

A CRITICAL REVIEW

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Young people (youth) aged 10 to 24 years are Sub-Saharan Africa’s largest and fastest-increasing demographic group. From 1980 to 1995, the population of this age group increased by 56%. Unprotected sexual practices expose youngsters to the danger of getting sexually transmitted illnesses (STIs), including HIV infection. STIs are a huge public health issue, particularly because they can lead to serious complications if left untreated, as well as their association with HIV transmission. They cause significant morbidity and untimely death. Over 100 million new cases of STI are diagnosed each year among young individuals under the age of 25, who account for roughly half of the world’s population. According to Amu and Adegun (2015), various surveys show that, as in many other developing countries, a high proportion of young people in Nigeria have unprotected penetrative sex by the age of 16 years (3-5), while 23 percent and 25 percent of primary school boys (12-20) years and girls (12-19) years, respectively, reported past experience of sexually transmitted disease (STDs) in Lagos.

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Intriguingly, despite the fact that the use of condoms as a STI preventative measure was not studied in his study, various factors have been documented to discourage the use of STI preventive measures among the young demographic sub-group.  Alubo,  Oyediran, and Odiachi (2019) averred that condoms, which reduce sexual pleasure, financial constraints, poverty, and societal norms that keep women submissive, as well as conventional views of technique, have all been implicated.

While basic sexual health information is reported by young people to be primarily acquired from peers, information on STDs such as HIV/AIDS and pregnancy prevention among Nigerian youth is typically acquired from the mass media. Only a small proportion of students reported their parents as their primary source of sexual health information. In a related study on our culture in Nigeria, it was found that a relatively low proportion of parents were willing to take to their children on sex related issues. The study also found that parents believed such issues should be taught in school, indicating that sex related issues are sensitive and parents avoid discussing them with their children.

On the other hand, Adegun,  Solomon, Adegoke (2018) stated that the quality of knowledge that parents pass on to their children is questionable, and parents themselves are concerned that they do not have enough information to pass on to their children. However, there are evidence that teenagers prefer to acquire sexual health information from parents and instructors, whom they regard as reputable providers of such knowledge. This study investigated the sources of information and levels of awareness about STDs among secondary school children  in an urban context in order to provide evidence-based information to relevant organizations and institutions when tackling STDs among youth in schools.

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1.2STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Secondary school adolescents are more vulnerable to STIs than older individuals. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are illnesses that are spread mostly via sexual contact. They include curable diseases such as gonorrhea, syphilis, and chlamydia, as well as incurable but treatable illnesses such as HIV, herpes simplex, human papillomavirus (HPV), and hepatitis B. According to the World Health Organization, 20% of HIV/AIDS patients are in their twenties, and one out of every twenty teenagers contracts a STI each year (WHO 2018). Youths are more prone than adults to engage in unprotected sex, have several sexual partners, and engage in transgenerational and transactional sex. The cervical lining of female adolescents and young women predisposes them to STIs. Furthermore, as observed by Olasode (2017) individuals may have difficulty obtaining the necessary knowledge, services, and supplies to avoid STIs. They may also have difficulty receiving STI prevention programs because they may not know where to look, do not have transportation, or cannot afford the services. Even if they can get STI prevention programs, they may not feel safe in areas that are not welcoming to young people .

Surprisingly, untreated or inadequately treated STIs are linked to a slew of consequences. Infection with gonorrhea and Chlamydia trachomatis causes epididymitis in men, which might lead to infertility in the future. Furthermore, inflammatory urethral stricture may develop in the future as a result of untreated gonococcal urethritis. If not treated effectively, this might lead to urine retention and possibly chronic renal failure. Pelvic inflammatory illness, dyspareunia, infertility, persistent pelvic discomfort, higher risk of ectopic pregnancies, abortions, stillbirths, and perinatal and neonatal morbidities can all occur in females, endangering their future reproductive abilities (FMH 2015).

Knowledge of STI and associated consequences, as observed by, is vital for proper prevention and treatment, since those who do not identify their need and hence do not seek care. Apart from HIV/AIDS, knowledge of other STIs is limited in the poor countries. Importantly, there are little, if any, literature on STI awareness in junior secondary schools. The purpose of this study was to establish students’ knowledge and information sources on sexually transmitted diseases (STIs) in junior secondary school, to identify their special health educational requirements, and to provide suitable suggestions to the Government and Ministry of Education.

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The broad objective of this study is focused on  students’ knowledge and information source on sexual transmitted infection (STIs ) in junior secondary school. Other specific objectives includes:

  1. To ascertain the level of student knowledge on sexual transmitted diseases in junior secondary schools
  2. To investigate sources of student information on sexual transmitted diseases in junior secondary schools
  • To explore  the risk factors ofsexual transmitted diseases in junior secondary schools
  1. To determine the attitude of student  information sources on sexual transmitted diseases in junior secondary schools.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION

The research is guided by the following questions:

  1. What is the level of student knowledge on sexual transmitted diseases in junior secondary schools?
  2. What are the sources of student information on sexual transmitted diseases in junior secondary schools?
  • What are the risk factor of sexual transmitted diseases in junior secondary schools?
  1. What is the attitude of students towards information sources on sexual transmitted diseases in junior secondary schools.
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1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

A lot of research has been done on level of knowledge and source of information on sexually transmitted disease among secondary school students at junior secondary student .The study will enable the researcher to make recommendation of junior secondary school policy makers especially these in the information units and Ministry of Education and Health on what policies and strategies can be employed to improved level of knowledge and source of information on sexually transmitted diseases in junior secondary school of learning.The finding will help the Junior Secondary Education Board review its methods of admitting students in order to improve awareness level. The report will also be a source of reference for other researchers intending to study the level of knowledge and source of information on sexually transmitted diseases among secondary school students. Empirically, the study will add to the general body of knowledge and serve as a reference material to student and scholars who wish to conduct further studies in related field.

1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The scope of this study borders on students’ knowledge and information source on sexual transmitted infection (STIS ) in junior secondary school: a critical review. The context scope covered factors such as risk and knowledge of the sexually transmitted infection, and school awareness on how to address the STIs among youth in schools. The study is however delimited to selected junior secondary schools in Calabar South Local government area in Cross River State.

1.7       LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. The significant constraint was the scanty literature on the subject owing that it is a new discourse thus the researcher incurred more financial expenses and much time was required in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size covering only  junior secondary schools in Calabar South Local government area in Cross River State. Thus findings of this study cannot be used for generalization for other  junior schools in other  states within Nigeria. Additionally, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work will impede maximum devotion to the research. Howbeit, despite the constraint encountered during the  research, all factors were downplayed in other to give the best and make the research successful.