THE IMPACT THAT INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) HAS ON THE TEACHING AND LEARNING THAT TAKES PLACE IN THE CLASSROOM
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
It is difficult, and perhaps perhaps impossible, to conceive of future educational settings that are not facilitated in some manner, shape, or form by information and communication technology (ICT). When one considers the current widespread diffusion and use of information and communication technology (ICT) in modern societies, particularly by young people – the so-called “digital generation” – it should be obvious that ICT will affect the entirety of the learning process both now and in the future. Almost everywhere on the face of the earth, organizations such as the African Union (AU), the European Union (EU), and the Member States have committed time, energy, and resources to the promotion and implementation of information and communications technology (ICT) in education and training, and they continue to do so (e.g. the EU eLearning Programme and the Source Crew Virtual Classroom Programme powered by illuminate).
To put it another way, there is a general notion that information and communication technologies (ICTs) have an essential part to play in transforming and modernizing educational institutions and methods of instruction. Despite the efforts made over the course of the last several decades, there is a paucity of empirical data about the specific contributions that ICTs have made to the field of education. As a result, there is a pressing need to compile evidence about the influence of information and communications technology (ICT) on education and training in Africa. However, it is important to note that many of the earliest online courses, such as those developed in the 1970s and 1980s at the New Jersey Institute of Technology, as well as the courses offered at the University of Guelph in Canada, the British Open University, and the online distance courses offered at the University of British Columbia (where Web CT, which is now incorporated into Blackboard Inc., was first developed), have always placed a significant emphasis on online discussion between students.
Also, from the very beginning, practitioners like Harasim (1995) have placed a significant focus on the use of learning networks for the purpose of knowledge production. This was a long time before the phrase “e-learning.” There is also an increase in the use of virtual classrooms (online presentations delivered live) as an online learning platform and classroom for a diverse set of education providers such as Minnesota State Colleges and Universities and Sachem School District. Virtual classrooms allow for online presentations to be delivered in real time. E-learning is inherently adapted to distant learning and flexible learning, but it may also be used in combination with face-to-face instruction. In this scenario, the term blended learning is widely used. E-learning is naturally suited to distance learning and flexible learning.
Bernard Luskin, a pioneer in the field of e-learning, contends that in order for e-learning to be successful, the letter “E” has to be given a more general connotation. Luskin contends that the letter “e” should be understood not just to indicate “electronic,” which is the conventionally accepted meaning at the national level, but also to imply “exciting,” “energetic,” “enthusiastic,” “emotional,” “extended,” “outstanding,” and “educational.” This more expansive interpretation makes it possible to apply the concept to the 21st century and incorporates learning and media psychology into the equation.
It is becoming increasingly common, particularly in the field of higher education, to establish what is known as a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE), which is sometimes combined with a Management Information System (MIS) in order to establish what is known as a Managed Learning Environment. In such an environment, all aspects of a course are managed through a user interface standard that is consistent throughout the institution. A wide variety of academic degree and certificate programs are now being made available online by a growing number of traditional universities in addition to more recent establishments that exist solely online. These programs cover a wide range of academic levels and are offered in a wide variety of subject areas. Although there are certain programs that need students to physically attend some sessions or orientations on campus, many courses are now being taught entirely online. In addition, many educational institutions now provide student support services to their students online. These services include online advising and registration, e-counseling, the ability to buy textbooks online, student governments, and student newspapers.
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The use of information and communication technology (ICT) in the form of e-Learning may also refer to educational websites that provide children with learning situations, worksheets, and interactive activities. The word is also widely used in the corporate world, where it most often refers to time- and money-saving online training. Screencasting has emerged as a popular method in the field of e-Learning in recent years. There are a variety of screencasting tools available, but the most recent buzz is all about web-based screencasting tools. These programs provide users the ability to record screen casts straight from their browser and make the video accessible online so that viewers may stream the video immediately. The presenter is able to demonstrate his ideas and the flow of his thoughts rather than merely explaining them, which may be more difficult to understand when it is done via the use of straightforward written instructions. This is one of the advantages of employing such technologies. With the use of video and audio, the knowledgeable individual may recreate the one-on-one setting of the classroom in order to provide lessons that are both clear and comprehensive. This offers the student with the flexibility to stop and rewind the presentation, as well as the benefit of progressing through the material at their own speed, which is something that is not always possible in a traditional classroom setting.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
There is a frightening disparity between the astronomical increase in the number of applicants seeking admission into various higher institutions in Nigeria and the available facilities in these institutions to provide quality education, which is the primary reason for these institutions’ existence and one of the primary challenges facing the educational sector in Nigeria. This disparity is one of the major challenges facing the educational sector in Nigeria. The Joint Admission and Matriculation Board (JAMB) is responsible for registering hundreds of thousands of students each year who are interested in gaining entry into one of the many institutions of higher learning in the nation. Unfortunately, less than 20% of these students are accepted by these universities. This is due to the fact that the infrastructure these institutions have on hand can only sustain a smaller number of students. In point of fact, the number of students who apply to and are accepted by these institutions often exceeds the capacity of the facilities that are on hand to provide a high-quality education and to ensure that the learning environment in the classroom is optimal. As a result, it should not come as a surprise that students at most of these schools are often crammed into lecture halls, with the majority of students having to struggle to acquire themselves desks and chairs just so they can listen to lectures. Even more absurd and disgusting is the fact that some pupils are forced to sit on the floor while others are forced to hang from window frames in order to remain in the classroom and listen to their instructors.
Not only do students have to deal with the deplorable circumstance of having to sit on the floor or hang on the window frames in order to hear the teacher’s lecture, but teachers also have to deal with this issue. In our universities and other places of higher education, the teachers are also responsible for their fair part of this awful scenario. For instance, since they have such a large number of students in their classrooms, the lecturers use a lot of their energy when they are teaching because they have to yell rather than talk in order to be heard well enough for the students to understand what they are saying. There is no public speaker system, and even in the few instances when one does exist, there is often not enough energy to operate it. There is no denying that this has a detrimental effect on the lecturers’ and students’ respective levels of productivity. And in the end, the primary goal of these institutions, which was to provide an education that was up to worldwide standards in terms of quality, is not achieved.
It is without a doubt that the implementation and acceptance of ICTs that are both effective and efficient will go a long way toward ameliorating the aforementioned unfortunate condition, but it will also complement the effort of these institutions in their duty of delivering excellent education. It is an original and forward-thinking creation that makes it possible for educators to educate in a manner that is more comfortable and easy. This is made possible by a technology that allows for cooperation via the web, and it is particularly useful in a virtual classroom, where the physical presence of instructors and students is not always necessary. The virtual classroom, just like the physical classroom, is interactive, and it puts the institution in a position to admit more students than they currently do without compromising the quality and standard of education that they offer, but rather improves it. This is especially advantageous in areas with a high population density. Therefore this study seeks to examine the impact that information and communication technology has on the teaching and learning that takes place in the classroom.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The general objective of this study is to examine the impact that information and communication technology has on the teaching and learning that takes place in the classroom. Specifically, the study will be guided by the following:
- To examine if teachers competence in the use of ICT aids learning process of students.
- Tofind out the availability of ICT tools in other for easy teaching and learning .
- To assess benefit of ICT in the teaching and learning process.
- To investigate impact of ICT on students academic performance.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following questions have been prepared for the study;
- Does teachers competence in the use of ICT aids learning process of students?
- Is there an availability of ICT tools in other for easy teaching and learning ?
- What are the benefit of ICT in the teaching and learning process?
- To investigate impact of ICT on students academic performance.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
In the era of technology, ICT is significant to students, teachers, as it aids plenty of resources to enhance the teaching skills and learning ability. With the help of ICT now it is easy to provide audio visual education. The learning resources are being widens and widen. Now with this vivid and vast technique as part of the ICT curriculum, learners are encouraged to regard computers as tools to be used in all aspects of their studies. In particular, they need to make use of the new multimedia technologies to communicate ideas, describe projects, and order information in their work.
The study is significant to the academic community as it will contribute to the existing literature.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study will examine if teachers competence in the use of ICT aids learning process of students. The study will also find out the availability of ICT tools in other for easy teaching and learning . the study will further assess benefit of ICT in the teaching and learning process. Lastly, the study will investigate impact of ICT on students academic performance. Hence this study will be delimited to Ambrose Alli University Edo State.
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, and interview), which is why the researcher resorted to a moderate choice of sample size. More so, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
ICT: information communications technology.
Teaching: the occupation, profession, or work of a teacher.
Learning: the acquisition of knowledge or skills through study, experience, or being taught.