AN INVESTIGATION INTO PARENTAL INVOLVEMENTS AND PROBLEMS IN THE AWARENESS OF FAMILY LIFE EDUCATION

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AN INVESTIGATION INTO PARENTAL INVOLVEMENTS AND PROBLEMS IN THE AWARENESS OF FAMILY LIFE EDUCATION

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1  Background to the study

There is nothing novel about the concept of preparing people and families for the tasks and responsibilities that come with living in a family setting. Because knowledge about human development, interpersonal relationships, and family living is not innate, societies have needed to develop methods through which they can transmit the wisdom and experience of family living from one generation to succeeding generations. These methods include passing down stories, passing down recipes, and passing down traditions. In some tribes, his knowledge is passed down via ritualized practices such as puberty initiation ceremonies. To a far greater extent than everywhere else, however, people acquire knowledge about family life within the context of their own families and the families of others via participation in and observation of family activities and interactions.

This pattern of unstructured learning about how to live in families is unable to keep up with the ever-changing social landscape as it grows more complicated. The accumulation of new information, the acceleration of technological progress, and the ongoing transformation of social and economic conditions all combine to produce a scenario in which the teachings of earlier generations are no longer applicable or adequate in the modern world. In this situation, communities need to identify or establish new methods to prepare people for the roles and duties that they will have within their families. Education on family life is one of these innovative approaches.

According to Clark (2015), when parents and other family members get directly engaged in their children’s education, the children’s academic performance improves, and the youngsters go on to have more success in life. According to Clark, engagement on the part of parents encompasses a wide variety of various kinds of activities. It’s possible that some parents only have time for one or two activities, while others are able to participate in a number of different ways. According to Aluede (2020), the impacts of parental participation in their children’s education are said to be more potent when it starts at an earlier stage in the child’s educational process. The methods of parent participation that are most successful are the ones that get parents personally involved in helping their children learn in the home environment. Parents have the opportunity to participate in family life education when they ensure their children have improved school attendance, higher levels of motivation, and higher levels of self-esteem. Even though most parents aren’t sure how to assist their children with their education, with the right advice and support, they may become more active in home learning activities and find themselves in positions where they can instruct, advise, and serve as models for their children. Participation of parents in educational activities was shown to be a factor that was twice as predictive of academic performance as the socioeconomic standing of the family, according to Uwakwe (2019). When schools encourage children to practice reading at home with their parents, the children make considerable increases in reading proficiency compared to those who only practice reading at school. This is in contrast to the situation when children exclusively practice reading at school. The positive impacts on the student’s accomplishment are directly proportional to the level of involvement that the parents demonstrate. Student success is increased when parents read to their children, have books accessible for their children to read, take their children on excursions, supervise their children’s TV viewing, and give other stimulating activities. The more parents engage in family life education in a consistent manner, at every level—in advocacy, decision making, and supervision roles, as well as in the capacity as home teachers—the more favorable the outcomes will be for their children. For the most part, the institution of the family is responsible for the creation of children, who later grow up to be members of the younger generation of the society. In addition, the family is viewed as the major agent of socialization, which is the process by which the norms and values of a society are absorbed by the new members of the society, who are children. This process includes education as well as behavioral pattern and ways of living. In addition, the family is responsible for providing the fundamental necessities of existence, such as food, a place to sleep, clothes, and education, among other things.

According to Arqqawal (2018), “It is the home that determines the quality of the direction of any child’s life, and that teacher’s works is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill this major factor in the education of any child.” [Citation needed] Arqqawal (2018). “It is the home that determines the quality of the direction of any child’s life.” However, authors such as Adeyemo (2018) and Akinboye (2020) have shown that children who come from unstable households have a lower capacity for adaptation to the environment of the classroom, a lower level of initiative, and a lower level of emotional self-control. It’s possible that a child’s ability to learn is impacted by the amount of stress in their home environment and the way their parents communicate with them. For example, a kid who is constantly disturbed as a result of arguments between their parents is more likely to have lower levels of educational accomplishment (Krohn and Bogan, 2017). Infants who are not provided with enough warmth and consistency by their parents, as well as educational stimulation (such as being taught new words), run the risk of developing learning and emotional issues later in life (Werner and Smith, 2016). Babies who are not properly cared for run the risk of having both health and developmental issues later in life (Kenpe and Goldbloom, 2017). Clark (2015) finds that parents of high academic achievers set firm but not harsh rules, seek information about their children’s academic progress, enhance literacy skills through activities such as reading and word games, and model an optimistic assertive approach to life. These findings come from a study of young people from low-income black homes with varying family structures. According to Clark’s research, two-parent families and single-parent families that possessed these characteristics produced students with higher levels of academic achievement, whereas two-parent families and single-parent families that lacked these characteristics produced students with lower levels of academic achievement. In a similar vein, Goldenberg (2019) describes how assertive parent involvement may significantly influence student achievement. During the course of Goldenberg’s case study, the children who improved their reading skill received encouragement and/or home tutoring from their parents. Goldenberg found that these two factors were significantly associated with the children’s academic success.

 

There is nothing new about the practice of preparing individuals and families for the roles and responsibilities of family living. Due to the fact that relationships and family living are not innate, societies have needed to develop methods through which they may transmit the knowledge and the experience of family living from one operation to succeeding ones. In certain cultures, this information is passed down via ritualized channels, such as coming of age ceremonies or initiation rituals. Individuals, on the other hand, get the majority of their knowledge about family life within the context of their own families and the families of others via participation in and observation of various family activities and interactions (Aluede, 2020). This type of informal education that takes place inside families is unable to keep up with the ever-changing and more complicated nature of societies. Because of the accumulation of new information, the progression of technology, and the shifting of social and economic conditions, situations are created in which the teachings that were passed down from previous generations are no longer applicable or adequate. When this occurs, societies are forced to discover or create new ways to prepare individuals for the roles and responsibilities they will play within their families. Education on family life is one of these innovative approaches (Alueze and Ikechukwu, 2020).

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It is impossible to overemphasize how important it is for Nigeria to become a society that is free, just, and democratic; a land that provides ample opportunities for all of its citizens; a nation that is capable of generating a great and dynamic economy; and a nation that is growing into a unified and self-sufficient nation. In order to accomplish these objectives, education in Nigeria is the instrument par excellence for effective national development. The Ministry of Education of the Federal Government (2015). As a result of the changes that have taken place in society, the goal of every youngster is to become a billionaire overnight. It seems that it is becoming more difficult for the majority of the youngsters in our nation to really focus on their academic pursuits. According to the findings of the Good Community Committee (2015), the roots of low academic success in children may be traced back to their formative years. A significant number of youngsters struggle to develop healthy levels of self-respect and self-discipline, as well as the ability to respond to challenges in ways that are constructive, and they lack any awareness for the significance of the abilities necessary for learning. In other words, it seems to be the case that there are various variables that are involved in the complexity and interconnectedness of the youngsters’ academic achievements. Both the Good Community Committee (2015) and Schewertz (2016) recognized children’s underachievement in school as being caused by factors such as single parents, poverty, youth violence (crime), drug issue, school instability, and rebellion. According to Sewel (2020), three of the numerous reasons why children drop out of school include not enjoying their education, getting disciplined at school, or being expelled. Other factors may include the economic situation as well as the family’s socioeconomic standing. Friends and acquaintances who have also left school, as well as personal circumstances, such as pregnancy in the case of females. In addition, dropouts got poorer grades in school, were more likely to have disciplinary difficulties, and had a lower rate of completing their homework, all of which are indicators of a lack of externalized sensory regulation. When students are unsuccessful in their attempts to advance to the next grade level, they often express a desire to leave school in order to move to a farm, where they may grow cocoa on plots of land and eventually become cocoa farmers. In some regions of South-West Nigeria, children and parents often use the slang phrase “Oga teacher, how much is your salary?” during the cocoa harvest season. Your monthly wage may be bought with two kilograms (Kilograms) of cocoa. It’s possible that this regional sickness is to blame for the high dropout rate seen in many rural communities. With the advent of Okada, sometimes known as commercial motorcycling, it would seem that males are at a greater risk of dropping out of school than girls. In addition, some youngsters go on to work as bus conductors or as “Payabayaba,” which is a slang term for an illegal wood contractor. According to Ayodele (2017), there was a case of a male student who was arrested for social ills (stealing), and during interrogation; he said that he dropped out from school because his school fees were not paid, and his mother gave birth to nine children for different nine fathers. Ayodele (2017) states that there was a case of a male student who was arrested for social ills (stealing), and during interrogation; he said that he stole from Ayodele goes on to say that in the study of some female students, it was revealed that when they fail in school or their fees were not paid, they seem to experience fear, anxiety, inferiority complex, and guilt among their mates, and this seems to give them some sort of psychological problem. She says that this was discovered in the study, and she adds that this seems to give them some sort of psychological issue. Because of this, young girls are more likely to engage in sexual activity before to marriage and to get married more quickly.

 

According to Owuamanam (2016), some individuals get married because they don’t have enough money to pay their children’s school fees or take care of their children’s other necessities. An additional issue that has been observed to be widespread among female children is the difficulty of frequent meeting. As soon as some female children see their friends who have dropped out of school with expensive clothes and their babies, the next thing they do is copy their teachers so that they can dress like their friends and look nice among their peer groups. Unfortunately, this typically leads to the termination of their academic career. It would appear that a parent’s interest in the education of their children would be badly impacted if the parent themselves did not place a high value on education. According to Adaba (2017), parents do not encourage the education of their female children due to the erroneous belief that investing money on the education of female children may end up being a waste when they get married because they lose family’s name and the husband’s family would reap the fruits of their labor. In other words, the parents believe that the husband’s family would benefit more from their daughter’s education than their own. Adaba also said that some parents were unable to pay school fees and supply required materials needed by their wards, and that this contributed to children’s underachievement in schools. Adaba noted that some parents were unable to pay school fees and provide necessary materials for their wards. According to the opinion of Alonge (2018), some parents are cruel and terrible to their children if the children do not do well on their exams or if they fail them. Children are at risk of not completing their education for a number of reasons, including the absence of a secure home environment and the presence of negative experiences in school.

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If one takes into account those family characteristics, such as parental values and pressure for the child to achieve, as well as the child’s own efforts and perceived efficacy, that appear to operate independently of convectional aspects of class (for the few countries in which these factors have been studied), then one can get a better estimate of the true influence of children’s background on achievement. This can be accomplished by taking into account better indicators of the material and social aspects of class. The national aspiration that Nigeria should be a free, just, and democratic society, a land full of opportunities for all of its citizens, a land that is capable of generating a great and dynamic economy, and growing into a united and self-reliant nation, is an important pointer to the role that education has to play in the political system. According to the Nigerian Federal Ministry of Education, education is the most effective tool for achieving these objectives and contributing to the nation’s overall successful development (2015). As a result of the changes that have taken place in society, the goal of every youngster is to become a billionaire overnight. It seems that it is becoming more difficult for the majority of the youngsters in our nation to really focus on their academic pursuits. According to the findings of the Good Community Committee (2015), the roots of low academic success in children may be traced back to their formative years. Insufficient self-respect, self-discipline, and the ability to deal with challenges are common challenges for many youngsters. This historical context highlights the need of bringing the current research, which tried to explain parental involvements and challenges in the knowledge of family life education, into sharper focus.

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1.2  Statement of the problem

Even while a formal degree of family life education is offered via the maturity test system, themes such as “running a healthy and pleasant relationship” or “parenting abilities” developed through learning channels are popular across a much larger spectrum of demographics(Epstein, 2019). This learning pool, which is further segmented into educational market and mental hygiene services, is shared by civic activity organizations, commercial entrepreneurs, and even religions. In addition, municipalities are beginning to enter the market for family life education, even if this trend is still in its infant stages. The engagement of parents in their children’s education should start at home, with the parents providing a secure and wholesome atmosphere, age-appropriate learning experiences, assistance, and a supportive and optimistic attitude toward the child’s education. Multiple studies point to an improvement in academic success among adolescents whose parents are interested in their education (Epstein, 2019). According to the findings of other studies, parental participation is most successful when regarded by educators and parents as a collaborative effort between the two parties. It is expected that educators and parents would have a better grasp of successful parental participation strategies in increasing student accomplishment after conducting an investigation into the perspectives held by both teachers and parents. Therefore, this study is designed to examine parental involvements and problems in the awareness of family life education.

1.3  Objectives of the study

The main objective of the study is to examine  parental involvements and problems in the awareness of family life education. Other specific objectives include:

  1. To examinethe level of parents awareness of family life education.
  2. Tofind  out the problems facing family life education.
  • To examine whether the occupational status of parents can affect their involvement in family life education
  1. To find out whetherseparation and divorce have any effect on the success of family life education.

1.4  Research questions

The following questions are posited to guide the study.

  1. To examinethe level of parents awareness of family life education.
  2. Tofind  out the problems facing family life education.
  • To examine whether the occupational status of parents can affect their involvement in family life education
  1. To find out whetherseparation and divorce have any effect on the success of family life education.

1.5  Significance of the Study

The outcome of this study would provide basis for effective promotion of Family Life Education.

The study would assist to enlighten parents on the need to know and understand the effects of home background on the academic performance of children. Also, it would enlighten the adolescent as to the variables that would contribute to their academic performance in schools.

It will also bring about awareness for decision making bodies and even teachers to look into the problems facing teaching and learning in secondary schools in terms of the identified variables.

It would bring about for schools the need to provide a conducive environment for teachers and parents interaction through the Parents Teachers Association (PTA) meetings

It will bring about awareness for parents after Parents Teachers Association (PTA) meetings the need for the parents to provide necessary facilities needed by their wards for use in schools.

This study will create the opportunity and forum to discuss how home climate set-ups could enhance or hinder parental involvement in family life education.

Through this study, practicable solutions would be proffered to correct the unfavorable home climate in order to help the youth to live in a good and conducive home environment that will guarantee high quality education, performance and attainment.

1.6  Scope of the study

This study will examine the level of parents awareness of family life education. The study will also find  out the problems facing family life education. The study will further examine whether the occupational status of parents can affect their involvement in family life education. Lastly, the study will find out whether separation and divorce have any effect on the success of family life education. Hence this study will be delimited to Kwara State.

1.7  Limitations of the study

Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, and interview), which is why the researcher resorted to a moderate choice of sample size. More so, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.

1.8 Definition of terms

Parental involvement: the participation of parents in regular, two-way, meaningful communication involving student academic learning and other school. activities

Family life education: the educational effort to strengthen individual and family life through a family perspective.