A REVIEW ON INTEGRATED SCIENCE PERFORMANCE OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS (ELL) THROUGH SHELTERED INSTRUCTION

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A REVIEW ON INTEGRATED SCIENCE PERFORMANCE OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS (ELL) THROUGH SHELTERED INSTRUCTION

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1  BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

The development of English language competence has been linked to pupils’ achievement in other academic disciplines. The usefulness of the English language as a tool for communication in Nigerian schools stems mostly from its practical applications to the country’s wider community. The official language of business and government is English. Salami (2020). A person who is studying the English language after mastering their original tongue is known as an English language learner (ELL) (mother tongue). As a result, the phrase is used to describe English language learners (ELLs) in institutions where English is the medium of teaching (Wikipedia, 2011). Although students who are learning English as a second language (ELL) originate from different backgrounds, they have a number of demands. They must undoubtedly improve their English skills. Along with maintaining a continuum of learning in the subject areas, they also need to develop their English reading and writing abilities (E.g. mathematics, science etc).

According to researchers, ELL students’ academic success and educational attainment depend on their ability to learn academic English language abilities (Slavin & Chueng, 2015) Also emphasize that the biggest single influence on students’ academic achievement at school is poverty, followed by language and, in particular, competency in the medium of instruction. For ELL students in scientific classes, comprehending the material and managing language comprehension are challenges. Prinsloo and Taylor (2015). Teachers are consequently faced with the dual task of instructing ELLs in a specific topic area while the learners are still having difficulty with the English language.

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Scientific and science education both include language in some way. Students and scientists both used language to build new ideas and make sense of fresh knowledge. The four cornerstones of scientific literacy are reading, speaking, writing, and listening (Norris and Philips,2016). Learning the language of science is one of the biggest challenges that students face when studying science (Wellington and Osborne,2001). To increase the quality of scientific education, it is crucial to pay attention to the language used in the classroom, and each lecture should implicitly include a language lesson. (Shaffer 2017). For students to succeed, their conceptual understanding should go beyond simple vocabulary, and they should be able to participate in and control the proper dialogue (Shaffer,2017).

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For students, especially ELLs, the specific linguistic requirements of science pose significant difficulties (Lemke, 2018). Different from the daily language of many pupils, science employs language in specific ways. De Oliveira (2016) states that these linguistic requirements for science may include:

  1. Definitions of technical words Science textbooks frequently include technical terminology, some of which are normally explained and printed in bold, but others may appear without an explanation or a definition may be hard to locate. Furthermore, definitions could use complicated language that ELLs find difficult to grasp.