THE IMPACT OF SOUND AND QUALITY SECONDARY EDUCATION ON THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF STUDENTS IN THE SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS

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THE IMPACT OF SOUND AND QUALITY SECONDARY EDUCATION ON THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF STUDENTS IN THE SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The purpose of education is to encourage and foster the growth of all of a learner’s skills, including their physical, intellectual, and moral capacities. These are expectations placed on him by the community to which he is predetermined to belong and which he must fulfill. According to Onwuka (2011), education is defined as the process by which individuals get acclimatized to the culture into which they are born in order to progress in it. He had the opinion that education is the process of tending to and caring for an individual in order to facilitate that person’s development into a fully functioning member of society. In addition, he emphasized that it is the actualization of human potentials that allows a person to become something more than what he was in the past or to accomplish more objectives than he did in the past. In the context of this discussion, the term “education” refers to the process of encouraging, either formally or informally, the development of intrinsic potentials that might help someone become a valuable member of society. It is impossible to have effective education in a country unless the three primary agents of learning—the educators, the students, and the surrounding environment—are structured in such a way that they work together toward the common goals of the society. The fact that society places such high expectations on the outputs of educational institutions means that the students are at the center of every instructional program. The standard of teaching personnel in a school system is an important factor in determining the caliber of the education that students get and the amount of resources that are made available to the institution so that it may advance (Ochuba 2009). Ochuba emphasized that the objectives of education, the quality of inputs, and an organized school system that ensures the articulation and efficient co-ordination of all aspects of school life are some of the factors of high quality education in the school system.

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People and nations have become more aware of the significance of education to the improvement of individual and societal standards, which has sparked a conscious effort on the part of both to devote their limited resources to the pursuit of a quality education despite the fact that these resources are limited. Additionally, “the strategic position of secondary school in the national educational system has made it a focus of great concern.” [Citation needed] As early as 1984, Segun Adeshina had the view that this was the case. According to Adeshina (1984), secondary education functions as a transition zone since it takes in students who have graduated from elementary schools and prepares them for further education beyond secondary school. According to Cornell (2010), who gives a viewpoint that is linked to this topic, it is essential for a person to obtain secondary education since it is an integral component of the path to acquiring the appropriate education. According to Cornell, the reason why secondary education is so important is not just because it bridges the gap between what children have already learned in elementary school and what they will learn in college (secondary education), but also because it provides students with the opportunity to acquire knowledge that contributes to the development of critical and analytical thinking as well as that of an understanding of the world around them. The provision of a practical education to the population of the nation includes secondary education as a crucial component on a basic level.

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In addition to this, Moja (2000) notes that the education that is provided at this level serves two distinct functions. The first objective is to get students ready to leave high school with the skills they need to find work, and the second objective is to get students ready to continue their academic careers by enrolling in higher education. In light of this, the Federal Government of Nigeria (2004) included in the National Policy of Education the assertion that the broad purposes of secondary education within overall objectives are to prepare students for meaningful life within the community as well as to prepare them for higher education. As a result of all that has been discussed up to this point, it seems that secondary education is the most effective tool for national growth. As a result, there is an expectation that secondary education will be of a high grade and excellent quality.

Nevertheless, the Nigerian educational system is being confronted with a growing number of difficult challenges. There is a growing chorus of people concerned that declining morality and education levels are leading to an increasingly irresponsible society. Some people point the finger at students for what they see as a fall in the overall level of educational and moral standards. A few people who have given it some consideration believe that they are because the nature of changes in all directions. The majority of people point the finger of blame at the educators in our institutions. They do not have their predecessors’ level of commitment and enthusiasm for the advancement of educational opportunities. The majority of educators point the blame at the youngsters and their own parents. They also place responsibility on the government for the unappealing quality of the service and the inadequate physical facilities that are present in some areas of the educational system. The purpose of this study endeavor is not to point the finger of blame at either the educational policy or the system. According to the findings of the research, the lack of adequate educational inspection and supervision, inadequate school facilities, and the absence of implementation of quality control measures in terms of the teacher-pupil ratio as stipulated in the National Policy on Education are all to blame for the current state of education in the country.

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The intricacies of the educational system, which led to the employment of contemporary approaches in teaching and learning, have made it very necessary for educators to participate in professional development opportunities like seminars and workshops in order to enhance their methods of instruction. In the Ekiti state education zone, also known as the “heartbeat” of public secondary schools in Ekiti State, quality assurance, which is the key tool for ensuring the employment of qualified teachers and the availability of facilities that are needed to ensure that students perform better in academics, has not yet been fully instituted. This is despite the fact that quality assurance is the key tool for ensuring the employment of qualified teachers. As a consequence, low or poor quality input has constituted a problem for the fact that students no longer find it easy to compete with their peers from private schools in global competitions. As a result, they choose to transfer from public to private schools where teachers are more developed, adequate facilities have been guaranteed, and proper management has been ensured. Therefore the study examine the impact of sound and quality secondary education on the academic achievement of students in the senior secondary schools.

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1.3     OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The general objective of the study is to examine the impact of sound and quality secondary education on the academic achievement of students in the senior secondary schools. The specific objectives are:

  1. To examine the relationship between the adequacy of facilities and students’ academic
  2. To find out the relationship between quality secondary education on the academic achievement of students.
  • To investigate the relationship between teachers professional development and students’ academic achievement.

1.4     RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The following questions have been prepared for the study:

  1. Is there arelationship between the adequacy of facilities and students’ academic achievement?
  2. Is there a relationship between quality secondary education on the academic achievement of students?
  • Is there a relationship between teachers professional development and students’ academic achievement?

1.5     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study is significant to teachers as it will also assist the teachers to upgrade their knowledge in a modern way. Some teachers who are not used to information and communication technology (ICT) will know how to use the modern equipment in teaching through workshops conferences. The knowledge the teachers gained will also help them to direct students accordingly without misunderstanding.

The study will be significant as it will also help the principals to use modern equipment in planning and organizing the school activities. It will also help them to involve the teachers in some decision making which will allow him or her gain more knowledge and input about administration through conference attendance.

1.7     SCOPE AND DELIMITATION OF STUDY

This study will examine the relationship between the adequacy of facilities and students’ academic achievement. The study will also find out the relationship between quality secondary education on the academic achievement of students. Finally, the study will investigate the relationship between teachers professional development and students academic achievement. Hence this study will be delimited to Ogun State.

1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, and interview), which is why the researcher resorted to a moderate choice of sample size. More so, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.

1.8     DEFINITION OF TERMS

Quality

This is a degree of excellence, a distinguish attribute and a peculiar and essential character of an inherent feature.

Academic achievement:  performance outcomes that indicate the extent to which a person has accomplished specific goals that were the focus of activities in instructional environments, specifically in school, college, and university